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Volume 13   Issue 1   Year 2018
Brain-Computer Interface Systems Based On the Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

Alexei V. Korshakov

Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University (RNRMU), Ministry of Education and Science of Russia, Ministry of Health and Social Development, Moscow, Russian Federation
Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology of RAS (IHNA&NPh RAS)
NRC "Kurchatov Institute", Moscow, Russian Federation

Abstract. The article describes the modern systems of man and computer interaction, or Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs), of several types. The interfaces, based on hemodynamic activity measurements of human cerebral cortex by the means of  the near-infrared spectroscopy are discussed  and also those, which are based on the combinations of the near-infrared spectroscopy, the electroencephalography and the encephalographies of other modalities. The theoretical fundamentals are provided of near-infrared spectroscopy devices functioning and a number of the typical experiments in the field noted. The special focus is on the functional magnetic resonance imaging and other methods of collecting biometrics data in the context of hemodynamic response . Various practical realizations and technical solutions of devices of mentioned type are described. The highlight of possible practical utilizations of human-machine interfaces in the sphere of medicine and/or medical rehabilitation is given. The  analysis of practical solutions and applications of BCI systems is performed, which was added by a systematic publications review . Related disciplines have been also  considered. Several examples of simultaneous usage of BCIs and robotics systems, which were  built for the compensation of human body's lost functions also are provided. Some attention is paid to the  Fast Optical Signals and to the researches in the field of optogenetics. The results of the conducted research make us to believe that the peeked field of knowledge is  fairly young and at some areas of it the process of pure research and random search of new facts and technical solutions is still ongoing, although with an extremely high intensity. All things considered, the analised research direction  should be judged  as highly perspective, all the more so as it is joined with wide area of related disciplines with broad spectra of implementations.
Key wordsBCI, near-infrared spectrometry, NIRS, encephalography, hemodynamic activity of brain cortex, brain computer interfaces, electroencephalography, pulsometry, fMRI BOLD.
Table of Contents Original Article
Math. Biol. Bioinf.
doi: 10.17537/2018.13.84
published in Russian

Abstract (rus.)
Abstract (eng.)
Full text (rus., pdf)


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